Tort – a private or civil wrong or injury. A wrong independent of contract. A violation of a duty imposed by general law or otherwise upon all persons occupying the relation to each other which is involved in a given transaction. (Black’s dictionary)
A civil wrong, or wrongful act, whether intentional or accidental, from which injury occurs to another. Torts include all negligence cases as well as intentional wrongs which result in harm. (In plain English)
Tortfeasor – a wrong-doer; one who commits or is guilty of a tort.
Plaintiff – a person who brings an action; the party who complains or sues in a personal action and is so named on the record.
Defendant – the person defending or denying; the party against whom relief or recovery is sought in an action or suit. A person summoned to answer a charge or complaint in an action or suit.
Liability (liable) – bound or obliged in law or equity; responsible; chargeable; answerable; compellable to make satisfaction, compensation, or restitution. Condition of being bound to respond because a wrong has occurred.
Proximate cause – that which in a natural and continuous sequence, unbroken by any efficient intervening cause, produces the injury, and without which the result would not have occurred.
Immunity – Exemption, as from serving in an office, or performing duties which the law generally requires other citizens to perform. Exemption from legal prosecution, often granted a witness in exchange for self-incriminating testimony. Exemption from legal prosecution, often granted a witness in exchange for self-incriminating testimony.